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Diamond is the hardest known mineral and colorless. It is a precious stone

Diamond is the hardest known mineral and colorless. It is a precious stone

Diamond is the hardest known mineral and nearly colorless. It is a very precious stone when transparent and free from flaws. Diamond is also useful for the industrial purposes as well due to its hardness and high dispersion of light.  They can retain their luster and have been treasured as gemstones. The popularity of diamonds has risen since the 19th century because of its increased supply, improved cutting and polishing techniques. There is about 130 million karats are mined annually, with a total value of about USD $9 billion, and about 100,00 kg of synthetic diamonds are manufactured annually. About 49% of the natural diamonds originate from central and Southern Africa.  A diamond is also known allotrope, which makes it only one of several distinct forms of an element. We can say that a diamond is simply made completely of one element only and that element has the ability to take on several different forms.

Diamond has a lot of unequaled qualities and considered as a very unique among the minerals and the hardest substance. Diamond is the greatest conductor of heat and has the highest melting point and refractive index. Every carbon is surrounded by four other carbon atoms in a diamond. Thus, due to this organization of carbon atoms, diamond is the hardest known material. As it is a good conductor of heat, they are cold to feel at or below the room temperature. Diamond will always remain hot for a long even after the heat source is removed. It is also known for its luster, it exhibits great fire and brilliance, gives a shiny and polished look. Some of the rough diamonds exhibit a greasy luster. The hardness and the refractive index of diamond may vary.

The World’s largest diamond was found on 25, January 1905, at the Premier Mine in Pretoria, South Africa, which weighs about 1.33 pounds.

Where are diamonds found:
The sources of natural diamond have been discovered in about 35 different countries around the world. Among these, Russia, Botswana, and South Africa are the world’s major countries, producing a quality diamond and the Australia is the major industrial diamond producer. Africa has the most notable diamond deposits.

Here are the top 10 countries where the diamond is mostly found:

Brazil, Ghana, Namibia, Angola, Canada, South Africa, Australia, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Botswana, Russia,

History of Diamonds:
Diamonds were found earliest in India in 4th century BC. A lot of these stones were transported within the network of the trade routes that connects the India and China, which is commonly known as the Silk Road. Diamonds were valued on the basis of their strength and brilliance at that time. They were worn as adornments, used as the cutting tools at that time. Diamonds were also used as a medical aid in the dark ages. Diamonds have some characteristics which are common with that of coal. Both coal and diamond are composed of the most common substances on earth, i.e., carbon. The arrangement of carbon atoms makes diamonds different from the coal. Carbon on high pressures and temperatures create the diamonds, found at the earth’s lithosphere, which lies approximately 90-240 miles below the earth’s surface. India was considered to be the only source of diamonds until the 18th century. A small deposit of diamonds was found in Brazil in 1725.

Diamonds are considered as the girl’s best friend. It symbolizes the height of affluence and affection. It is the most concentrated form of pure carbon and the strongest mineral on the Earth. Diamonds require the four key ingredients in its organic process; these are carbon, pressure, heat and time. Prime diamonds have been formed over billions of years from heated and pressurized carbon and are located about 100 miles underground in the Earth’s mantle. Diamonds must be cut, sorted and polished to bring out their luster. The Swedish and American researchers cracked the carbon code in the 1950s to convert the graphite and molten iron into the diamond. The manufacturing of the most authentic diamond is done by subjecting the pure carbon to intense heat and pressure in a stimulation of the organic process.

The Value of Diamond:
Diamond is the strongest mineral and always high in demand even outside the fashion market. It conducts heat five times faster than copper and has the ability to pass or block the electrical currents and endure extreme temperatures and chemical exposure according to the Natural Museum of History. Diamonds may be broken as well and it may be valued differently based on its quality.

Formation of Diamond:
It is believed by many people that diamonds are formed from the metamorphism of coal but coal has not enough roles in the formation of diamonds. Diamonds are found at or near the Earth’s surface. There are different methods used in the formation of diamonds, these are:

1. Formation of Diamond in Earth’s Mantle:
It is believed that the deposits of diamonds were found in the Earth’s mantle and delivered to the surface by the volcanic eruptions, which produce the kimberlite and lamproite pipes. Natural Diamonds requires very high temperatures and pressures for its formation and these conditions are found in the limited zones of Earth’s mantle at about 90 miles below the surface. The volcanic eruptions tear out the pieces of the mantle and carry the diamonds rapidly to the surface.

2. Formation of Diamond in Subduction Zones:
We know that the tiny diamonds have been found in the rocks been subducted deep into the mantle by a specific process, i.e., plate tectonic process. It occurs at miles below the surface and at the temperature of 390 degrees Fahrenheit.

3. Formation of Diamond at Impact Sites:
It is known that the Earth has been repeatedly hit by the large asteroids, on striking the earth, asteroids produce the extreme temperatures and pressures. This high temperature and pressure make an adequate situation for the formation of diamonds.

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